Bornika Articles

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Neutral Grounding Resistors (NGR)

Neutral Grounding Resistors are used in industrial power systems for resistance grounding of wye connected generators and transformers.

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Comparison between Grounding Plates and Lattice Earth Mat as ground terminal

This article describes a technical and economical comparison between Grounding Plates and Lattice Earth Mat.

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What is the Surge Arrester

Surge Arrester is a device designed to protect transmission lines and electrical distribution equipment against damage from over-voltage transients caused by external or internal events caused by lightning, erratic system conditions, faulty insulation, crossed power lines and other mishaps.

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Lightning protection zone concept ( LPZ )

A lightning protection zone concept in conformity with the IEC 62305-4 standard provides effective protection against surges caused by a lightning electromagnetic impulse (LEMP).

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Grounding electrodes in HF

Transient behavior of grounding electrodes in impulse condition is different from low frequency and low current condition. The impulse characteristics of grounding electrodes will be discussed.

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PV systems protection against of Lightning and Surge

This article describes how to use Bornika Company Lightning / Surge protection equipment in PV Systems.

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Ground rules

In analog design, the relationship of a signal to ground is of fundamental concern (and can create issues in digital designs, too.) However, “ground” as a concept can be confusing as it relates to three different situations: chassis ground, signal ground, or earth ground.

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DC Generator

There are two types of generators, one is ac generator and other is DC generator. Whatever may be the types of generators, it always converts mechanical power to electrical power. An AC generator produces alternating power. A DC generator produces direct power. Both of these generators produce electrical power, based on same fundamental principle of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

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What is a Relay

Relays are switches that open and close circuits electromechanically or electronically. Relays control one electrical circuit by opening and closing contacts in another circuit.

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Relay test device learning

Relay Test Device type PW636I has 4 output 300V and 6 output 32A can test all types of protective relays, including modern IEC61850 based relays. This device is the ideal test device for all power utilities , power plants , relay manufactures , panel manufactures , research institutes , testing companies. In this paper, we intend to have an overview of the device and its components.

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Types of relay

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.

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Differential Protection of Generator or Alternator

Any internal fault inside the stator winding is cleared by mainly differential protection scheme of the generator or alternator.The differential protection is provided in the generator by using longitudinal differential relay.

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