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Ground rules

In analog design, the relationship of a signal to ground is of fundamental concern (and can create issues in digital designs, too.) However, “ground” as a concept can be confusing as it relates to three different situations: chassis ground, signal ground, or earth ground.

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DC Generator

There are two types of generators, one is ac generator and other is DC generator. Whatever may be the types of generators, it always converts mechanical power to electrical power. An AC generator produces alternating power. A DC generator produces direct power. Both of these generators produce electrical power, based on same fundamental principle of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

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What is a Relay

Relays are switches that open and close circuits electromechanically or electronically. Relays control one electrical circuit by opening and closing contacts in another circuit.

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Relay test device learning

Relay Test Device type PW636I has 4 output 300V and 6 output 32A can test all types of protective relays, including modern IEC61850 based relays. This device is the ideal test device for all power utilities , power plants , relay manufactures , panel manufactures , research institutes , testing companies. In this paper, we intend to have an overview of the device and its components.

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Types of relay

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.

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Differential Protection of Generator or Alternator

Any internal fault inside the stator winding is cleared by mainly differential protection scheme of the generator or alternator.The differential protection is provided in the generator by using longitudinal differential relay.

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What is the distance relay

Distance protection relay is the name given to the protection, whose action depends on the distance of the feeding point to the fault. IF the distance which is measured is less than the considered value for relay, the relay will protect the system and operate. Only by using the Distance relay, all faults in any location of system can be cleared. So, Distance relays are the best relays for protecting transmission energy systems. Even in high voltage and medium voltage systems, Distance relays are used.

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Surge Arrester Circuit

Lightning surges frequently invade the electronic systems through AC power supplies, it is necessary to install the surge protective devices (SPDs) on the supply lines to protect the electronic equipment against lightning overvoltages.

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Vector Group Test of Transformer

In three phase transformer, it is essential to carry out a vector group test of transformer. Proper vector grouping in a transformer is an essential criteria for parallel operation of transformers. There are several internal connection of three phase transformer are available in market. These several connections gives various magnitudes and phase of the secondary voltage; the magnitude can be adjusted for parallel operation by suitable choice of turn ratio, but the phase divergence can not be compensated. So we have to choose those transformer for parallel operation whose phase sequence and phase divergence are same. All the transformers with same vector group have same phase sequence and phase divergence between primary and secondary. So before procuring one electrical power transformer, one should ensure the vector group of the transformer, whether it will be matched with his or her existing system or not.

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Types of Transformer Testing

For confirming the specifications and performances of an electrical power transformer it has to go through numbers of testing procedures. Transformer is one of the important equipment in power system. So, testing the transformer is pretty serious issue.In this paper, the different types of transformer testing are mentioned.

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What is Switch-mode Power Supplies (SMPS)

Switch-mode Power Supplies, are electronic power equipment, which include switching controller, for converting electric power to another voltage level. Switch-mode Power Supplies (SMPS) like other power supplies can be connected to one bigger source and transform energy to loads by different currents and voltages. Unlike linear power supplies, power transistors of switch-mode Power Supplies turn on and off, constantly, and as a result, these equipment have minimum loss power.

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earthing in pool

For the first time in the 1962 edition of the National Electrical Code standard and connected to the earth system is explained in the pool.

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