Lightning



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1- Lightning

Blinding light and loud and overwhelming! Usually these are the only indicators of lightning (thunder) know it. Residents have different names on the phenomenon are often taken from the same two characteristics of lightning (thunder) is Shirazi said "proud distinguishes", Tehran of "lightning" Afghans "Tana" and the Europeans "Thunder "their voice. The discharge of electrical charge between the cloud and ground lightning (lightning) say and electrical discharge between cloud lightning say.The impact of clouds has loads of other namesake, strong electrical response to light and the sound of thunder or lightning is produced as intense and studies conducted by specialists of a thunderstorm at any moment in the world between 1500 up to 2000 times. On the ground frequency about 40-50 times per second thunder and lightning nearly 1.4 billion per year occur. The average duration is 30μs. Dz frequency of risk factors and power distribution and physical properties of a typical lightning in a specific area of ​​the world: - Height ground - Latitude - the prevailing wind - Relative humidity - near the hot and cold water Lightning usually caused by cumulonimbus clouds at an altitude of 1-15 kilometers away from the Earth's surface are produced. Lightning consequences that can be associated with color, light, step voltage, contact voltage, poisoning or injuries caused by breathing in smoke from fires, injuries caused by the collapse of the ...

1-1- Positive and negative lightning

Lightning between clouds and the ground is usually from cloud to ground strikes (negative lightning), but in some rare cases also from ground to cloud lightning strikes (lightning positive). In this case (positive lightning) ground is negatively charged and positively charged cloud. In cumulonimbus clouds of sometimes up to 15km altitude and several kilometers wide. During the process, the particles become positively charged positive as negative charges in the upper cloud layers underneath Vbarhay focus. In this case, the positive charges to the surface, under the shadow of a cloud can be complex. With the increase in electric potential Abrnsbt to land a stream of electrons moving Pyshrvaz ladder shape of the cloud to the ground (downward leader) flowed primary channel lightning forms. This channel is fully ionized air around. The arrow that sometimes its length to 50 meters, many times in Arrowhead carry and increases the electric field intensity atmosphere and air insulation resistance failure. In this case, the speed of movement approaching the ground channel of more than 300 kilometers per second. This time to increase the intensity of the electric field at the surface, an electric current is rising (upward leader) also goes from the ground to the cloud. Then hit the two arrows on each other, the flow channel is closed and the main lightning stroke occurs, and thus is expected to neutralize charges earth, flows a lot in a short time the channel is established.Lightning in a variety happens to be the most common (90% of negative downward lightning) and is the most serious type of positive upside.

1-2- Hot and Cold Lightning

Most lightning in a period of a few milliseconds happen but sometimes lightning during one or more successive steady flow of about 100 amps will be provided. This type of so-called lightning bolts, lightning often cause a fire that is hot, you know. In temperature caused by the lightning of hot and cold, ranging from 8.300 to 33,000 degrees Celsius. This continuous, yearly makes more than 10 thousand fires in the United States.

consequence of lightning

Lightning also has consequences that can be, color, light, step voltage, contact voltage, poisoning or injuries caused by breathing in smoke from fires, injuries from falling equipment and more.

2-1- Sound

The sound of thunder is eternal consequences. The sound is created due to the splitting of the air. Although sound and light production, but at the same time lightning strikes we see the first light of hearing voices. (And this is due to the lower speed of sound is the speed of light. (The speed of light: 360 thousand kilometers per second, the speed of sound is 330 thousand kilometers per second.))

2-2- Colors of Lightning

Lightning, which can include rainbow colors are the colors on white rims Central. These colors are usually the blue, yellow and purple. It determines the amount of heat lightning color. The cool purple and red are the hottest lightning. But color also depends on the lightning to environmental factors: Of blue lightning and hail storm conditions means.The incidence of red lightning mean rain. Yellow means of lightning is much dust in the air. White lightning means of land and lack of humidity and often lead to forest fires.

2-3- Ozone gas production

One of the most surprising outcomes of lightning (lightning), gas production and gas more surprise you to know when the "ozone" is. The gas is placed in the uppermost layer, a barrier against harmful cosmic radiation creates. "Ozone" In fact, the oxygen atoms but instead of 2, with 3 atoms of oxygen.linking and "ozone" is generated. Unlike oxygen and breathing ozone is a toxic gas that can be dangerous.

2-4- Electric field (voltage step)

Electrical field or "step voltage" Another serious consequence of lightning (thunder) is the electric field, the flow of the lightning, for a while on earth is left to the earth or is converted to heat. Voltage step moves on the earth, but the path is not clear. Usually most of the land in the deep power down but if the ground wet, rocky or covered with a bed of soil or grass, it is preferred that the surface in different directions, move. This phenomenon is called voltage step for entering the power of the individual steps (his feet), electric shock him. Voltage step-up to a radius of several meters around the site of lightning strikes (lightning) were dispersed and those who are in the path he suffered the electric shock.Winning is not calculated exactly how much the voltage step and the conductivity of soil in the area (mentioned above), but rarely seen on land power more than 100 meters along the ground to move forward. Step voltage for lightning (lightning), but in the power industry events, such as the power cable into power on earth will be created. It is certainly much stronger step voltage caused by lightning.

2-5- Contact voltage

Contact voltage for the same reason but the voltage generated by voltage step usually hands and feet caused by humans. Risk of being killed as a result of contact voltage for the flow to the area around the heart is far more than the voltage step closer.

2-6- Overvoltage

Overvoltage there may be two factors: External factors that are outside the power grid, such as lightning and thunder. Domestic factor that caused network disruptions and other items such as switching, resonance can occur in the network or otherwise. Lightning can cause three voltage electrical systems. - Connection resistance: from ground potential rise when lightning occurs. This makes part of the lightning current through conductive input / output to be transferred to other buildings. - Connect Salafi: due to lightning current through a conductor or multiple discharge channel which creates an intense magnetic field. The equivalent of a few tens kV voltage is induced. - Capacitive coupling: Lightning near the discharge point of an intense electric field is created. In these conditions cables and conductors, including the capacitor plates are considered air as dielectric insulation it serves.

2-7- Radius of influence

Other notable cases include lightning around 1.5 km radius of influence Mfnatysy expression is essential.

3- Statistical writings thunderstroke

According to the study done by NASA to Aslbt Iran is not a lot of lightning, although the exact number is not in Iran, but in America, 1,000 hits and 100 deaths have been reported. The death rate is 10%. The America of the country hit by lightning and thunder, the row is eventful countries. The closer to the equator increases the number of lightning, but lightning in the polar regions may rarely occur. Also, due to air turbulence and instability, spring and autumn respectively, the incidence of lightning and thunder are the most dangerous seasons.

3-1- Is the possibility of a lightning strike to the men and women differ?

Surprisingly, the answer is yes! According to statistics, men were 4.5 times more likely to encounter lightning than women. The biological reasons mentioned to justify the issue of the amount of iron in the skull conductivity characteristics testosterone to men, they do not drool over. We're sorry fact easier to all of this Hrfhast and gentlemen, due to the stupidity of men: "The danger of the storm more men than women. " The fact that men are less likely to be due to bad weather, leave what they are doing. Urging them to continue with hobbies like fishing, camping, hunting and hiking in inclement weather causes them to be more vulnerable.

4- Final words

Statistical studies, suggests that although Iran is a mountainous and desert and mountain areas and the high probability of a lightning strike than from other regions. But the lightning-prone areas in the world is not. But you can not rely on the report of the safety and standards of thunder and lightning stroke refused. Because as we know, has a very low cost, standards-compliant lightning installation of a large-scale disaster can be prevented. Disasters that could casualties (irreparable) financial and even a lightning strike in a period of time less than a second cause.